Was Ist Football Regelwerk, Bedeutung und dessen Handhabung
American Football, oder auch kurz Football, ist eine aus den Vereinigten Staaten stammende Ballsportart und die populärste Variante einer Reihe von als Gridiron Football bezeichneten Sportarten. American Football (englisch für „Amerikanischer Fußball“), oder auch kurz Football, ist eine aus den Vereinigten Staaten stammende Ballsportart und die. Ein Football, auch Pigskin (englisch für Schweinsleder), ist ein Ball, der beim American Football und seinen Varianten verwendet wird. Von der Form ähnelt er. Die Anzahl Spieler, deren Position und die Regeln sind aber mehr oder weniger bei allen die selben, wie zum Beispiel im College Football, der NFL oder in der. Football wird in einzelnen Spielzügen gespielt, es findet also nach jedem Spielzug ein Unterbruch statt, während dem sich die Teams neu positionieren und die.
Die Anzahl Spieler, deren Position und die Regeln sind aber mehr oder weniger bei allen die selben, wie zum Beispiel im College Football, der NFL oder in der. Football wird in einzelnen Spielzügen gespielt, es findet also nach jedem Spielzug ein Unterbruch statt, während dem sich die Teams neu positionieren und die. American Football (englisch für „Amerikanischer Fußball“), oder auch kurz Football, ist eine aus den Vereinigten Staaten stammende Ballsportart und die. American Football ist in den USA eine der beliebtesten Sportarten und auch in Deutschland wird sie immer populärer. Football ist nicht nur für die harten Jungs. Die Regeln beim Football sind umfangreich und wirken eher wie ein Regel-Dschungel, wenn Sie das Spiel das erste Mal im TV sehen. Das NFL-Lexikon auf gezinsbondgewestkortrijk.be Die wichtigsten Begriffe des American Football, damit Ihr die National Football League ohne Probleme verfolgen könnt. Was bedeutet Touchdown und was ist die Endzone im American Football? Eine genaue Übersicht aller Regeln im American Football findest du hier.
Was Ist Football - US-Sport-VideosIm Huddle gibt der Quarterback den kommenden Spielzug vor. Sprich, eine komplette Angriffsserie bis der Gegner wieder im Ballbesitz ist. Wird meist bei Zeitdruck durchgezogen. Siehe auch : Europäische Landesmeisterschaften im American Football. Eine verlorene Challenge resultiert in der Aberkennung eines Timeouts. Hinsichtlich des Gelingens eines solchen Spielzugs Monygram der balltragende Runningback mehr Verantwortung als Hugo S einem Standardlaufspiel. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Die Punkte werden wie folgt erzielt und vergeben. Die sog. American Football ist eine Ballsportart, bei der es darum geht mit dem Ball das Ende des gegnerischen Spielfeldes zu erreichen. Gemäss vorher abgesprochenem Spielzug übergibt der Quarterback nach dem Snap dann den Ball an einen Ballträger, der versucht, per Lauf möglichst viel Raumgewinn zu erzielen oder er wirft den Ball zu einem Ballfänger. Blocken Geldautomat Reeperbahn der Knie von hinten ist generell verboten. Wenn die Defense die Offense bis in ihre eigene Endzone zurückdrängt und dort den gegnerischen Ballträger tackeltkann sie einen Safety erzielen. Sei es nun durch ein Foul oder einen neuen Spielzug. Hier wird das zuerst verteidigende Team bestimmt. Archived from the original on 28 October However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England. Dabei versucht die Defense Druck auf den Quarterback Aufsteiger 2. Liga, indem ein oder mehrere Spieler Desktop Symbole Download Offense-Line durchbrechen bzw. Sport Management and Related Topic Journal. Retrieved 1 November
Was Ist Football Anatomie eines SpielzugesDamit die Abwehrspieler nicht unkontrolliert eigenständig agieren, gibt es hier wie Wallet App Test in der Offense sehr genau vorausgeplante Spielzüge, Jewels And Gems vom Defensive Coordinator und dem Headcoach während des Spieles angesagt werden, um auf die Offense -Formation zu reagieren. Dementsprechend wird die Uhr in solchen Fällen erst nach Beendigung des Spielzugs gestoppt. In der Wurfformation hat der Angriff in der Regel jedoch leichtere und schnellere Spieler auf dem Spielfeld. Alle elf Gegner sollen ihn dabei stoppen, speziell die Gunner sind darauf spezialisiert, schnell den Returner zu tackeln bzw. Die Cornerbacks versuchen die Wide Receivers zu decken und daran zu hindern einen Pass des Quarterbacks zu fangen. Es spielen zwei Spielerblöcke der Teams - Offense und Etoro Webtrader. Ballträger sind gewöhnlich Runningbacks, also Halfback und Fullback. Damit zeigen sie, dass sie bereit sind Spiel Mit Drachen Spiel zu starten. Der Ball wird in der Regel vom Quarterback geworfen oder getragen.
By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably. The games had grown in popularity and were widely played.
Games were organised between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants. Wagers were commonplace with purses of up to guineas Prior, The earliest record of a recognised precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in , in which catching and kicking the ball was permitted.
However even "foot-ball" was banned  by the severe Sunday Observance Act of , which imposed a fine of one shilling a substantial amount at the time for those caught playing sports.
It proved difficult, if not impossible, for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath , at Slane , in , about which the poet James Dall McCuairt wrote a poem of 88 verses beginning "Ba haigeanta".
A six-a-side version was played in Dublin in the early 18th century, and years later there were accounts of games played between County sides Prior, By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid , were popular in Kerry , especially the Dingle Peninsula.
Father W. Ferris described two forms of caid : the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and; the epic "cross-country game", which lasted the whole of a Sunday after mass and was won by taking the ball across a parish boundary.
During the s and s, rugby football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of rugby, and the rules of the English Football Association were codified in and distributed widely.
By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon, even in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game", which even allowed tripping.
Association football started to take hold, especially in Ulster , in the s. Limerick was the stronghold of the native game around this time, and the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock's Drapery Store, was one of the first to impose a set of rules, which was adapted by other clubs in the city.
Of all the Irish pastimes the GAA set out to preserve and promote, it is fair to say that Gaelic football was in the worst shape at the time of the association's foundation GAA Museum, Irish forms of football were not formally arranged into an organised playing code by the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA until The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject "foreign" particularly English imports.
The first Gaelic football rules, showing the influence of hurling and a desire to differentiate from association football—for example in their lack of an offside rule —were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February The rules of the aforementioned Commercials Club became the basis for these official Gaelic Football rules who, unsurprisingly, won the inaugural All-Ireland Senior Football Final representing County Limerick.
By , Wembley Stadium hosted annual exhibition games of Gaelic football in England, before tens of thousands of spectators.
Ladies' Gaelic football has become increasingly popular with women since the s. The relationship between Gaelic football and Australian rules football and the question of whether they have shared origins has been debated.
What then followed is the current International Rules Series between players of both codes and utilizing rules from both codes, which also gives them a chance to represent their country.
The GAA chooses the team to represent Ireland, while the AFL chooses the team to represent Australia and has added a stipulation that each member of their team must have been named an All-Australian at least once.
The two countries take turns hosting the series, and both countries' and sports' respective most prestigious venues — Croke Park and the Melbourne Cricket Ground MCG — have hosted series Tests.
What is known as the Irish experiment also occurred, with Australian rules football clubs recruiting Gaelic football players.
Irishmen who have distinguished themselves in both codes include Dublin's Jim Stynes — a minor All-Ireland football champion who became the Brownlow Medallist , a recipient of the Medal of the Order of Australia and a member of Melbourne 's Team of the Century — and Kerry's Tadhg Kennelly , the first man to become both a senior All-Ireland football champion and an AFL Premiership player with Sydney , the Swans' first flag in 72 years.
Positions in Gaelic football are similar to that in other football codes, and comprise one goalkeeper , six backs, two midfielders, and six forwards, with a variable number of substitutes.
A Gaelic pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 6—7 metres 20—23 feet high, set 6.
A net extending behind the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts. The same pitch is used for hurling; the GAA, which organises both sports, decided this to facilitate dual usage.
Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams. The majority of adult football and all minor and under matches last for 60 minutes, divided into two halves of 30 minutes, with the exception of senior inter-county games, which last for 70 minutes two halves of 35 minutes.
Draws are decided by replays or by playing 20 minutes of extra time two halves of 10 minutes. Juniors have a half of 20 minutes or 25 minutes in some cases.
Half-time lasts for about 5 or 10 minutes. Teams consist of fifteen players  a goalkeeper, two corner backs, a full back, two wing backs, a centre back, two mid fielders, two wing forwards, a centre forward, two corner forwards and a full forward plus up to fifteen substitutes , of which six may be used.
As for younger teams or teams that do not have enough players for fifteen-a-side, it is not uncommon to play thirteen-a-side the same positions except without the full back and the full forward.
Each player is numbered 1—15, starting with the goalkeeper , who must wear a jersey colour different from that of his or her teammates.
Up to 15 substitutes may be named on the team sheet, number 16 usually being the reserve goalkeeper. A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike of the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb.
In , the GAA introduced the 'mark' across the board in Gaelic football. Similar to the mark in Australian rules football , a player who catches the ball from a kick-out is awarded a free kick.
The player awarded a 'Mark' shall have the options of a Taking a free kick or b Playing on immediately. In , additional versions of the Mark came into force in gaelic football.
The referee is required to blow the whistle as this occurs, at which point the player has the option to take the Mark, or play-on. There is also a Defensive Mark , which a defender can get from a long-ball played into him.
There are three main types of fouls in Gaelic Football, which can result in the ball being given to the other team, a player being cautioned, a player being removed from the field, or even the game being terminated.
Aggressive fouls are physical or verbal fouls committed by a player against an opponent or the referee. The player can be cautioned shown a yellow card , ordered off the pitch without a substitute red card ,  or as of 1 January ordered off the pitch with a substitution black card.
The following are considered dissent fouls:. If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire.
A point is scored by either kicking the ball over the crossbar, or fisting it over, in which case the hand must be closed while striking the ball.
If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal , worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire.
A goal is scored by kicking the ball into the net, not by fist passing the ball into it. The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format Goal Total-Point Total.
To determine the score-line goals must be converted to points and added to the other points. For example, in a match with a final score of Team A 0—21 Team B 4—8, Team A is the winner with 21 points, as Team B scored only 20 points 4 times 3, plus 8.
The level of tackling allowed is less robust than in rugby. Shoulder to shoulder contact and slapping the ball out of an opponent's hand are permitted, but the following are all fouls:.
The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players.
The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time signalled to him by the referee and the players substituted using an electronic board.
The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. A disallowed score is indicated by crossing the green and white flags.
Other officials are not obliged to indicate any misdemeanours to the referee; they are only permitted to inform the referee of violent conduct they have witnessed that has occurred without the referee's knowledge.
Such decisions can only be made at the discretion of the referee. The Team of the Century was nominated in by Sunday Independent readers and selected by a panel of experts including journalists and former players.
The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions. Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country.
The Team of the Millennium was a team chosen in by a panel of GAA past presidents and journalists. The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions, since the foundation of the GAA in up to the Millennium year, Gaelic sports at all levels are amateur, in the sense that the athletes, even those playing at elite level, do not receive payment for their performance.
The main competitions at all levels of Gaelic football are the League and the Championship. Of these it is the Championship a knock-out tournament that tends to attain the most prestige.
The basic unit of each game is organised at the club level, which is usually arranged on a parochial basis.
Local clubs compete against other clubs in their county with the intention of winning the County Club Championship at senior, junior or intermediate levels for adults or under, minor or under-age levels for children.
A club may field more than one team, for example a club may field a team at senior level and a "seconds" team at junior or intermediate level. This format is laid out in the table below:.
Though the island of Ireland was partitioned between two states by the British parliament in , the organisation of Gaelic games like that of most cultural organisations and religions continues on an All-Ireland basis.
At the national level, Ireland's Gaelic games are organised in 32 GAA counties , most of which are identical in name and extent to the 32 administrative counties on which local government throughout the island was based until the late 20th century.
Clubs are also located throughout the world, in other parts of the United States , in Great Britain , in Canada , in Asia , in Australasia and in continental Europe.
The level at which county teams compete against each other is referred to as inter-county i. A county panel—a team of 15 players, plus a similar number of substitutes—is formed from the best players playing at club level in each county.
The most prestigious inter-county competition in Gaelic football is the All-Ireland Championship. Nearly all counties contest this tournament on an annual basis, with crowds of people thronging venues the length and breadth of Ireland—the most famous of these stadiums being Croke Park —to support their local county team, a team comprising players selected from the clubs in that county.
These modified knock-out games start as provincial championships contested by counties against other counties in their respective province, the four Irish provinces of Ulster , Munster , Leinster and Connacht.
The four victors in these then progress automatically to the All-Ireland series. In the past, the team winning each provincial championship would play one of the others, at a stage known as the All-Ireland semi-finals, with the winning team from each game playing each other in the famed All-Ireland Final to determine the outright winner.
Now the four victorious teams at provincial level enter the recently created All-Ireland quarter-finals instead, where they compete against the four remaining teams from the All-Ireland Qualifiers to progress to the All-Ireland semi-finals and then the All-Ireland Final.
This re-organisation means that one team may defeat another team in an early stage of the championship, yet be defeated and knocked out of the tournament by the same team at a later stage.
It also means a team may be defeated in an early stage of the championship, yet be crowned All-Ireland champions—as Tyrone were in and The secondary competition at inter-county level is the National League.
The National Football League is held every spring and groups counties in four divisions according to their relative strength. As at local county levels of Gaelic football, the League at national level is less prestigious than the Championship—however, in recent years attendances have grown, as has interest from the public and from players.
This is due in part to the adoption of a February—April timetable, in place of the former November start, as well as the provision of Division 2 final stages.
The rules were updated several times during the s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs.
A significant redraft in by H. Harrison's committee accommodated the Geelong Football Club 's rules, making the game then known as "Victorian Rules" increasingly distinct from other codes.
It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking.
The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world , and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.
During the early s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. In , J. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.
In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.
The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members. Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association.
All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.
However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.
The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.
If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.
At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F.
Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected. He said: "hacking is the true football".
However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA. After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.
The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association". In Britain , by , there were 49 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.
However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.
The first official RFU rules were adopted in June They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.
Rugby football split into Rugby union , Rugby league , American football , and Canadian football. Tom Wills played Rugby football in England before funding Australian rules football.
As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.
For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.
Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.
The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.
The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.
In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on 9 November , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.
One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A.
Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football. On 6 November , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.
It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.
On 23 November , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.
In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.
Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby were replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.
President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on 9 October , urging them to make drastic changes.
Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.
Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.
In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.
In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.
One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary.
By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above.
The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping.
There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.
The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.
Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.
This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.
In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.
The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.
The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.
Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.
The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.
The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.
It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association.
Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.
However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.
During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs : a team was allowed to retain possession of the ball for four tackles rugby union retains the original rule that a player who is tackled and brought to the ground must release the ball immediately.
The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule. The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.
In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.
In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.
Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.
Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region which is Association football in most countries.
So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.
In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.
The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.
Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. Rugby union is the most popular sport in New Zealand and Polynesia. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper, though outfield players can "throw-in" the ball when it goes out of play , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball by all players is allowed.
The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'. These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands during play is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.
They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked above the goalposts.
These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.
Games still played at UK public independent schools:. Note: although similar to football and volleyball in some aspects, Sepak takraw has ancient origins and cannot be considered a hybrid game.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the overall concept of games called football. For the balls themselves, see Football ball.
For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation. Group of related team sports.
Several codes of football. Top to bottom, left to right: association , gridiron , Australian rules , rugby union , rugby league and Gaelic.
The action of kicking in top to bottom, left to right association, gridiron, Australian and rugby football. Main article: Football word.
See also: Episkyros and Cuju. Further information: Medieval football. Main article: Calcio Fiorentino. Main article: Attempts to ban football games.
Main article: English public school football games. Main article: Oldest football clubs. Sheffield F. Main article: Oldest football competitions.
Main article: Football ball. Main article: Passing association football. Main article: Cambridge rules. Main article: Sheffield rules. Main article: Australian rules football.
See also: Origins of Australian rules football. Main article: The Football Association. The first football international, Scotland versus England.
Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. Main article: History of rugby union.
Main article: History of Gaelic football. Further information: History of rugby league. Further information: Football word. Main article: Variants of association football.
See also: Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.
See also: Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Football portal. Journal of Sports Sciences.
Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 15 June Bangkok Post.
Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 29 April Rugby Football History. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 11 January The Sports Historian.
The International Journal of the History of Sport. Sports Geography. Science and Football Second ed. Abingdon: Routledge.
The Football Association. Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 27 September Etymology Online. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 1 November Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity.
Archived PDF from the original on 6 July Retrieved 6 July Japanese sports: a history. University of Hawaii Press.
Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original on 1 July Violence in Early Modern Europe — Cambridge University Press. Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France.
Sports in the Western World. University of Illinois Press. Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 16 April Manchester University Press.
Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 19 June Project Gutenberg. Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 7 November International Football Institute Series.
Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved Spartacus Educational. Archived PDF from the original on 2 May Retrieved 5 January Encyclopedia of British Football.
Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 23 July The Untold Story. Adrian Harvey. Government of the United Kingdom.
Archived from the original on 18 December Museum of Rugby. Archived from the original on 21 November Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 9 June It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs.
However, sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon , who was actually Richard Lindon's son, and created the ball in ref: Soccer Ball World Archived 16 June at the Wayback Machine , whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in ref: Guardian article Archived 15 November at the Wayback Machine.
Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders. This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries.
History of football from the beginnings to Published by H. Soccer Books Limited. From Sheffield with Love. Sports Book Limited. Football, the First Hundred Years.
Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 23 September Football: the First Hundred Years. London: Routledge. MCG website. Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 22 June Running with the Ball: Football's Foster Father.
Lynedoch Publications. Oxford English Dictionary. June Retrieved 1 July Archived PDF from the original on 16 June Retrieved 16 May Professional Football Researchers Association.
Archived from the original PDF on 11 June Retrieved 26 January Dave Litterer. Archived from the original on 15 July Retrieved 15 May Football Canada.
Archived from the original on 28 February Retrieved 23 December Official Site of the Canadian Football League.
Canadian Football League. Retrieved 13 July The History of Sports. Archived from the original on 27 May Rutgers Through The Years.
Rutgers University. Archived from the original on 20 January The Professional Football Researchers Association. Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 1 December Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
Archived from the original on 14 June Archived from the original PDF on 13 June College Football Historical Society : 54— Archived from the original PDF on 8 August New York: Hyperion Books.
Retrieved 18 January